Data types

This section describes the numerous data types in use in PROJ.4. As a rule of thumb PROJ.4 data types are prefixed with PJ_, or in one particular case, is simply called PJ. A few notable exceptions can be traced back to the very early days of PROJ.4 when the PJ_ prefix was not consistently used.

Transformation objects

PJ

Object containing everything related to a given projection or transformation. As a user of the PROJ.4 library you are only exposed to pointers to this object and the contents is hidden behind the public API. PJ objects are created with proj_create() and destroyed with proj_destroy().

PJ_DIRECTION

Enumeration that is used to convey in which direction a given transformation should be performed. Used in transformation function call as described in the section on transformation functions.

Forward transformations are defined with the :c:

typedef enum proj_direction {
    PJ_FWD   =  1,   /* Forward    */
    PJ_IDENT =  0,   /* Do nothing */
    PJ_INV   = -1    /* Inverse    */
} PJ_DIRECTION;
PJ_FWD

Perform transformation in the forward direction.

PJ_IDENT

Identity. Do nothing.

PJ_INV

Perform transformation in the inverse direction.

PJ_CONTEXT

Context objects enable safe multi-threaded usage of PROJ.4. Each PJ object is connected to a context (if not specified, the default context is used). All operations within a context should be performed in the same thread. PJ_CONTEXT objects are created with proj_context_create() and destroyed with proj_context_destroy().

PJ_AREA

New in version 6.0.0.

Opaque object describing an area in which a transformation is performed.

It is used with proj_create_crs_to_crs() to select the best transformation between the two input coordinate reference systems.

2 dimensional coordinates

Various 2-dimensional coordinate data types.

PJ_LP

Geodetic coordinate, latitude and longitude. Usually in radians.

typedef struct { double lam, phi; } PJ_LP;
double PJ_LP.lam

Longitude. Lambda.

double PJ_LP.phi

Latitude. Phi.

PJ_XY

2-dimensional cartesian coordinate.

typedef struct { double x, y; } PJ_XY;
double PJ_XY.x

Easting.

double PJ_XY.y

Northing.

PJ_UV

2-dimensional generic coordinate. Usually used when contents can be either a PJ_XY or PJ_LP.

typedef struct {double u, v; } PJ_UV;
double PJ_UV.u

Longitude or easting, depending on use.

double PJ_UV.v

Latitude or northing, depending on use.

3 dimensional coordinates

The following data types are the 3-dimensional equivalents to the data types above.

PJ_LPZ

3-dimensional version of PJ_LP. Holds longitude, latitude and a vertical component.

typedef struct { double lam, phi, z; } PJ_LPZ;
double PJ_LPZ.lam

Longitude. Lambda.

double PJ_LPZ.phi

Latitude. Phi.

double PJ_LPZ.z

Vertical component.

PJ_XYZ

Cartesian coordinate in 3 dimensions. Extension of PJ_XY.

typedef struct { double x, y, z; } PJ_XYZ;
double PJ_XYZ.x

Easting or the X component of a 3D cartesian system.

double PJ_XYZ.y

Northing or the Y component of a 3D cartesian system.

double PJ_XYZ.z

Vertical component or the Z component of a 3D cartesian system.

PJ_UVW

3-dimensional extension of PJ_UV.

typedef struct {double u, v, w; } PJ_UVW;
double PJ_UVW.u

Longitude or easting, depending on use.

double PJ_UVW.v

Latitude or northing, depending on use.

double PJ_UVW.w

Vertical component.

Spatiotemporal coordinate types

The following data types are extensions of the triplets above into the time domain.

PJ_LPZT

Spatiotemporal version of PJ_LPZ.

typedef struct {
    double lam;
    double phi;
    double z;
    double t;
} PJ_LPZT;
double PJ_LPZT.lam

Longitude.

double PJ_LPZT.phi

Latitude

double PJ_LPZT.z

Vertical component.

double PJ_LPZT.t

Time component.

PJ_XYZT

Generic spatiotemporal coordinate. Useful for e.g. cartesian coordinates with an attached time-stamp.

typedef struct {
    double x;
    double y;
    double z;
    double t;
} PJ_XYZT;
double PJ_XYZT.x

Easting or the X component of a 3D cartesian system.

double PJ_XYZT.y

Northing or the Y component of a 3D cartesian system.

double PJ_XYZT.z

Vertical or the Z component of a 3D cartesian system.

double PJ_XYZT.t

Time component.

PJ_UVWT

Spatiotemporal version of PJ_UVW.

typedef struct { double u, v, w, t; } PJ_UVWT;
double PJ_UVWT.e

First horizontal component.

double PJ_UVWT.n

Second horizontal component.

double PJ_UVWT.w

Vertical component.

double PJ_UVWT.t

Temporal component.

Ancillary types for geodetic computations

PJ_OPK

Rotations, for instance three euler angles.

typedef struct { double o, p, k; } PJ_OPK;
double PJ_OPK.o

First rotation angle, omega.

double PJ_OPK.p

Second rotation angle, phi.

double PJ_OPK.k

Third rotation angle, kappa.

Complex coordinate types

PJ_COORD

General purpose coordinate union type, applicable in two, three and four dimensions. This is the default coordinate datatype used in PROJ.

typedef union {
    double v[4];
    PJ_XYZT xyzt;
    PJ_UVWT uvwt;
    PJ_LPZT lpzt;
    PJ_XYZ  xyz;
    PJ_UVW  uvw;
    PJ_LPZ  lpz;
    PJ_XY   xy;
    PJ_UV   uv;
    PJ_LP   lp;
} PJ_COORD ;
double v[4]

Generic four-dimensional vector.

PJ_XYZT PJ_COORD.xyzt

Spatiotemporal cartesian coordinate.

PJ_UVWT PJ_COORD.uvwt

Spatiotemporal generic coordinate.

PJ_LPZT PJ_COORD.lpzt

Longitude, latitude, vertical and time components.

PJ_XYZ PJ_COORD.xyz

3-dimensional cartesian coordinate.

PJ_UVW PJ_COORD.uvw

3-dimensional generic coordinate.

PJ_LPZ PJ_COORD.lpz

Longitude, latitude and vertical component.

PJ_XY PJ_COORD.xy

2-dimensional cartesian coordinate.

PJ_UV PJ_COORD.uv

2-dimensional generic coordinate.

PJ_LP PJ_COORD.lp

Longitude and latitude.

Projection derivatives

PJ_FACTORS

Various cartographic properties, such as scale factors, angular distortion and meridian convergence. Calculated with proj_factors().

typedef struct {
    double meridional_scale;
    double parallel_scale;
    double areal_scale;

    double angular_distortion;
    double meridian_parallel_angle;
    double meridian_convergence;

    double tissot_semimajor;
    double tissot_semiminor;

    double dx_dlam;
    double dx_dphi;
    double dy_dlam;
    double dy_dphi;
} PJ_FACTORS;
double PJ_FACTORS.meridional_scale

Meridional scale at coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).

double PJ_FACTORS.parallel_scale

Parallel scale at coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).

double PJ_FACTORS.areal_scale

Areal scale factor at coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).

double PJ_FACTORS.angular_distortion

Angular distortion at coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).

double PJ_FACTORS.meridian_parallel_angle
Meridian/parallel angle, \(\theta^\prime\), at coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).
double PJ_FACTORS.meridian_convergence

Meridian convergence at coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\). Sometimes also described as grid declination.

double PJ_FACTORS.tissot_semimajor

Maximum scale factor.

double PJ_FACTORS.tissot_semiminor

Minimum scale factor.

double PJ_FACTORS.dx_dlam

Partial derivative \(\frac{\partial x}{\partial \lambda}\) of coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).

double PJ_FACTORS.dy_dlam

Partial derivative \(\frac{\partial y}{\partial \lambda}\) of coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).

double PJ_FACTORS.dx_dphi

Partial derivative \(\frac{\partial x}{\partial \phi}\) of coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).

double PJ_FACTORS.dy_dphi

Partial derivative \(\frac{\partial y}{\partial \phi}\) of coordinate \(\left(\lambda,\phi\right)\).

List structures

PJ_OPERATIONS

Description a PROJ.4 operation

struct PJ_OPERATIONS {
    const char  *id;            /* operation keyword */
    PJ *(*proj)(PJ *);          /* operation  entry point */
    char    * const *descr;     /* description text */
};
const char *id

Operation keyword.

PJ *(*op)(PJ *)

Operation entry point.

char * const *

Description of operation.

PJ_ELLPS

Description of ellipsoids defined in PROJ.4

struct PJ_ELLPS {
    const char  *id;
    const char  *major;
    const char  *ell;
    const char  *name;
};
const char *id

Keyword name of the ellipsoid.

const char *major

Semi-major axis of the ellipsoid, or radius in case of a sphere.

const char *ell

Elliptical parameter, e.g. rf=298.257 or b=6356772.2.

const char *name

Name of the ellipsoid

PJ_UNITS

Distance units defined in PROJ.

struct PJ_UNITS {
    const char  *id;        /* units keyword */
    const char  *to_meter;  /* multiply by value to get meters */
    const char  *name;      /* comments */
    double      factor;     /* to_meter factor in actual numbers */
};
const char *id

Keyword for the unit.

const char *to_meter

Text representation of the factor that converts a given unit to meters

const char *name

Name of the unit.

double factor

Conversion factor that converts the unit to meters.

PJ_PRIME_MERIDIANS

Prime meridians defined in PROJ.

struct PJ_PRIME_MERIDIANS {
    const char  *id;
    const char  *defn;
};
const char *id

Keyword for the prime meridian

const char *def

Offset from Greenwich in DMS format.

Info structures

PJ_INFO

Struct holding information about the current instance of PROJ. Struct is populated by proj_info().

typedef struct {
    int           major;
    int           minor;
    int           patch;
    const char   *release;
    const char   *version;
    const char   *searchpath;
} PJ_INFO;
const char *PJ_INFO.release

Release info. Version number and release date, e.g. “Rel. 4.9.3, 15 August 2016”.

const char *PJ_INFO.version

Text representation of the full version number, e.g. “4.9.3”.

int PJ_INFO.major

Major version number.

int PJ_INFO.minor

Minor version number.

int PJ_INFO.patch

Patch level of release.

const char PJ_INFO.searchpath

Search path for PROJ. List of directories separated by semicolons (Windows) or colons (non-Windows), e.g. “C:\Users\doctorwho;C:\OSGeo4W64\share\proj”. Grids and init files are looked for in directories in the search path.

PJ_PROJ_INFO

Struct holding information about a PJ object. Populated by proj_pj_info(). The PJ_PROJ_INFO object provides a view into the internals of a PJ, so once the PJ is destroyed or otherwise becomes invalid, so does the PJ_PROJ_INFO

typedef struct {
    const char  *id;
    const char  *description;
    const char  *definition;
    int          has_inverse;
    double       accuracy;
} PJ_PROJ_INFO;
const char *PJ_PROJ_INFO.id

Short ID of the operation the PJ object is based on, that is, what comes afther the +proj= in a proj-string, e.g. “merc”.

const char *PJ_PROJ_INFO.description

Long describes of the operation the PJ object is based on, e.g. “Mercator Cyl, Sph&Ell lat_ts=”.

const char *PJ_PROJ_INFO.definition

The proj-string that was used to create the PJ object with, e.g. “+proj=merc +lat_0=24 +lon_0=53 +ellps=WGS84”.

int PJ_PROJ_INFO.has_inverse

1 if an inverse mapping of the defined operation exists, otherwise 0.

double PJ_PROJ_INFO.accuracy

Expected accuracy of the transformation. -1 if unknown.

PJ_GRID_INFO

Struct holding information about a specific grid in the search path of PROJ. Populated with the function proj_grid_info().

typedef struct {
    char        gridname[32];
    char        filename[260];
    char        format[8];
    LP          lowerleft;
    LP          upperright;
    int         n_lon, n_lat;
    double      cs_lon, cs_lat;
} PJ_GRID_INFO;
char PJ_GRID_INFO.gridname[32]

Name of grid, e.g. “BETA2007.gsb”.

char PJ_GRID_INFO

Full path of grid file, e.g. “C:\OSGeo4W64\share\proj\BETA2007.gsb”

char PJ_GRID_INFO.format[8]

File format of grid file, e.g. “ntv2

LP PJ_GRID_INFO.lowerleft

Geodetic coordinate of lower left corner of grid.

LP PJ_GRID_INFO.upperright

Geodetic coordinate of upper right corner of grid.

int PJ_GRID_INFO.n_lon

Number of grid cells in the longitudinal direction.

int PJ_GRID_INFO.n_lat

Number of grid cells in the latitudianl direction.

double PJ_GRID_INFO.cs_lon

Cell size in the longitudinal direction. In radians.

double PJ_GRID_INFO.cs_lat

Cell size in the latitudinal direction. In radians.

PJ_INIT_INFO

Struct holding information about a specific init file in the search path of PROJ. Populated with the function proj_init_info().

typedef struct {
    char        name[32];
    char        filename[260];
    char        version[32];
    char        origin[32];
    char        lastupdate[16];
} PJ_INIT_INFO;
char PJ_INIT_INFO.name[32]

Name of init file, e.g. “epsg”.

char PJ_INIT_INFO.filename[260]

Full path of init file, e.g. “C:\OSGeo4W64\share\proj\epsg

char PJ_INIT_INFO.version[32]

Version number of init-file, e.g. “9.0.0

char PJ_INIT_INFO.origin[32]

Originating entity of the init file, e.g. “EPSG

char PJ_INIT_INFO.lastupdate

Date of last update of the init-file.

Logging

PJ_LOG_LEVEL

Enum of logging levels in PROJ. Used to set the logging level in PROJ. Usually using proj_log_level().

PJ_LOG_NONE

Don’t log anything.

PJ_LOG_ERROR

Log only errors.

PJ_LOG_DEBUG

Log errors and additional debug information.

PJ_LOG_TRACE

Highest logging level. Log everything including very detailed debug information.

PJ_LOG_TELL

Special logging level that when used in proj_log_level() will return the current logging level set in PROJ.

New in version 5.1.0.

PJ_LOG_FUNC

Function prototype for the logging function used by PROJ. Defined as

typedef void (*PJ_LOG_FUNCTION)(void *, int, const char *);

where the void pointer references a data structure used by the calling application, the int is used to set the logging level and the const char pointer is the string that will be logged by the function.

New in version 5.1.0.

C API for ISO-19111 functionality

enum iso19111_types::PJ_GUESSED_WKT_DIALECT

Guessed WKT “dialect”.

Values:

PJ_GUESSED_WKT2_2018

WKT2_2018

PJ_GUESSED_WKT2_2015

WKT2_2015

PJ_GUESSED_WKT1_GDAL

WKT1

PJ_GUESSED_WKT1_ESRI

ESRI variant of WKT1

PJ_GUESSED_NOT_WKT

Not WKT / unrecognized

enum iso19111_types::PJ_CATEGORY

Object category.

Values:

PJ_CATEGORY_ELLIPSOID
PJ_CATEGORY_PRIME_MERIDIAN
PJ_CATEGORY_DATUM
PJ_CATEGORY_CRS
PJ_CATEGORY_COORDINATE_OPERATION
enum iso19111_types::PJ_TYPE

Object type.

Values:

PJ_TYPE_UNKNOWN
PJ_TYPE_ELLIPSOID
PJ_TYPE_PRIME_MERIDIAN
PJ_TYPE_GEODETIC_REFERENCE_FRAME
PJ_TYPE_DYNAMIC_GEODETIC_REFERENCE_FRAME
PJ_TYPE_VERTICAL_REFERENCE_FRAME
PJ_TYPE_DYNAMIC_VERTICAL_REFERENCE_FRAME
PJ_TYPE_DATUM_ENSEMBLE
PJ_TYPE_CRS

Abstract type, not returned by proj_get_type()

PJ_TYPE_GEODETIC_CRS
PJ_TYPE_GEOCENTRIC_CRS
PJ_TYPE_GEOGRAPHIC_CRS

proj_get_type() will never return that type, but PJ_TYPE_GEOGRAPHIC_2D_CRS or PJ_TYPE_GEOGRAPHIC_3D_CRS.

PJ_TYPE_GEOGRAPHIC_2D_CRS
PJ_TYPE_GEOGRAPHIC_3D_CRS
PJ_TYPE_VERTICAL_CRS
PJ_TYPE_PROJECTED_CRS
PJ_TYPE_COMPOUND_CRS
PJ_TYPE_TEMPORAL_CRS
PJ_TYPE_ENGINEERING_CRS
PJ_TYPE_BOUND_CRS
PJ_TYPE_OTHER_CRS
PJ_TYPE_CONVERSION
PJ_TYPE_TRANSFORMATION
PJ_TYPE_CONCATENATED_OPERATION
PJ_TYPE_OTHER_COORDINATE_OPERATION
enum iso19111_types::PJ_COMPARISON_CRITERION

Comparison criterion.

Values:

PJ_COMP_STRICT

All properties are identical.

PJ_COMP_EQUIVALENT

The objects are equivalent for the purpose of coordinate operations. They can differ by the name of their objects, identifiers, other metadata. Parameters may be expressed in different units, provided that the value is (with some tolerance) the same once expressed in a common unit.

PJ_COMP_EQUIVALENT_EXCEPT_AXIS_ORDER_GEOGCRS

Same as EQUIVALENT, relaxed with an exception that the axis order of the base CRS of a DerivedCRS/ProjectedCRS or the axis order of a GeographicCRS is ignored. Only to be used with DerivedCRS/ProjectedCRS/GeographicCRS

enum iso19111_types::PJ_WKT_TYPE

WKT version.

Values:

PJ_WKT2_2015

cf osgeo::proj::io::WKTFormatter::Convention::WKT2

PJ_WKT2_2015_SIMPLIFIED

cf osgeo::proj::io::WKTFormatter::Convention::WKT2_SIMPLIFIED

PJ_WKT2_2018

cf osgeo::proj::io::WKTFormatter::Convention::WKT2_2018

PJ_WKT2_2018_SIMPLIFIED

cf osgeo::proj::io::WKTFormatter::Convention::WKT2_2018_SIMPLIFIED

PJ_WKT1_GDAL

cf osgeo::proj::io::WKTFormatter::Convention::WKT1_GDAL

PJ_WKT1_ESRI

cf osgeo::proj::io::WKTFormatter::Convention::WKT1_ESRI

enum iso19111_types::PROJ_CRS_EXTENT_USE

Specify how source and target CRS extent should be used to restrict candidate operations (only taken into account if no explicit area of interest is specified.

Values:

PJ_CRS_EXTENT_NONE

Ignore CRS extent

PJ_CRS_EXTENT_BOTH

Test coordinate operation extent against both CRS extent.

PJ_CRS_EXTENT_INTERSECTION

Test coordinate operation extent against the intersection of both CRS extent.

PJ_CRS_EXTENT_SMALLEST

Test coordinate operation against the smallest of both CRS extent.

enum iso19111_types::PROJ_GRID_AVAILABILITY_USE

Describe how grid availability is used.

Values:

PROJ_GRID_AVAILABILITY_USED_FOR_SORTING

Grid availability is only used for sorting results. Operations where some grids are missing will be sorted last.

PROJ_GRID_AVAILABILITY_DISCARD_OPERATION_IF_MISSING_GRID

Completely discard an operation if a required grid is missing.

PROJ_GRID_AVAILABILITY_IGNORED

Ignore grid availability at all. Results will be presented as if all grids were available.

enum iso19111_types::PJ_PROJ_STRING_TYPE

PROJ string version.

Values:

PJ_PROJ_5

cf osgeo::proj::io::PROJStringFormatter::Convention::PROJ_5

PJ_PROJ_4

cf osgeo::proj::io::PROJStringFormatter::Convention::PROJ_4

enum iso19111_types::PROJ_SPATIAL_CRITERION

Spatial criterion to restrict candidate operations.

Values:

PROJ_SPATIAL_CRITERION_STRICT_CONTAINMENT

The area of validity of transforms should strictly contain the are of interest.

PROJ_SPATIAL_CRITERION_PARTIAL_INTERSECTION

The area of validity of transforms should at least intersect the area of interest.

enum iso19111_types::PROJ_INTERMEDIATE_CRS_USE

Describe if and how intermediate CRS should be used

Values:

PROJ_INTERMEDIATE_CRS_USE_ALWAYS

Always search for intermediate CRS.

PROJ_INTERMEDIATE_CRS_USE_IF_NO_DIRECT_TRANSFORMATION

Only attempt looking for intermediate CRS if there is no direct transformation available.

PROJ_INTERMEDIATE_CRS_USE_NEVER
enum iso19111_types::PJ_COORDINATE_SYSTEM_TYPE

Type of coordinate system.

Values:

PJ_CS_TYPE_UNKNOWN
PJ_CS_TYPE_CARTESIAN
PJ_CS_TYPE_ELLIPSOIDAL
PJ_CS_TYPE_VERTICAL
PJ_CS_TYPE_SPHERICAL
PJ_CS_TYPE_ORDINAL
PJ_CS_TYPE_PARAMETRIC
PJ_CS_TYPE_DATETIMETEMPORAL
PJ_CS_TYPE_TEMPORALCOUNT
PJ_CS_TYPE_TEMPORALMEASURE
typedef char **PROJ_STRING_LIST

Type representing a NULL terminated list of NULL-terminate strings.

struct PROJ_CRS_INFO
#include <proj.h>

Structure given overall description of a CRS.

This structure may grow over time, and should not be directly allocated by client code.

struct PROJ_CRS_LIST_PARAMETERS
#include <proj.h>

Structure describing optional parameters for proj_get_crs_list();.

This structure may grow over time, and should not be directly allocated by client code.