# Coordinate operations

Coordinate operations in PROJ are divided into three groups: Projections, conversions and transformations. Projections are purely cartographic mappings of the sphere onto the plane. Technically projections are conversions (according to ISO standards), though in PROJ projections are distinguished from conversions. Conversions are coordinate operations that do not exert a change in reference frame. Operations that do exert a change in reference frame are called transformations.