The foundation of PROJ is the large number of projections available in the library. This section is devoted to the generic parameters that can be used on any projection in the PROJ library.
Below is a list of PROJ parameters which can be applied to most coordinate system definitions. This table does not attempt to describe the parameters particular to particular projection types. These can be found on the pages documenting the individual projections.
Parameter Description +a Semimajor radius of the ellipsoid axis +axis Axis orientation +b Semiminor radius of the ellipsoid axis +ellps Ellipsoid name (see
+k Scaling factor (deprecated) +k_0 Scaling factor +lat_0 Latitude of origin +lon_0 Central meridian +lon_wrap Center longitude to use for wrapping (see below) +over Allow longitude output outside -180 to 180 range, disables wrapping (see below) +pm Alternate prime meridian (typically a city name, see below) +proj Projection name (see
+units meters, US survey feet, etc. +vunits vertical units. +x_0 False easting +y_0 False northing
In the sections below most of the parameters are explained in details.
Horizontal units can be specified using the
+units keyword with a symbolic
name for a unit (ie.
us-ft). Alternatively the translation to meters can be
specified with the
+to_meter keyword (ie. 0.304800609601219 for US feet). The
-lu argument to
proj can be used to list symbolic unit names.
The default unit for projected coordinates is the meter.
A few special projections deviate from this behaviour, most notably the
latlong pseudo-projection that returns degrees.
Vertical (Z) units can be specified using the
+vunits keyword with a
symbolic name for a unit (ie.
us-ft). Alternatively the translation to
meters can be specified with the
+vto_meter keyword (ie. 0.304800609601219
for US feet). The
-lu argument to
proj can be used to list
symbolic unit names. If no vertical units are specified, the vertical units will
default to be the same as the horizontal coordinates.
proj do not handle vertical units at all and hence the
argument will be ignored.
Scaling of output units can be done by applying the
+k_0 argument. The
returned coordinates are scaled by the value assigned with the
Virtually all coordinate systems allow for the presence of a false easting
+x_0) and northing (
+y_0). Note that these values are always expressed in
meters even if the coordinate system is some other units. Some coordinate
systems (such as UTM) have implicit false easting and northing values.
By default PROJ wraps output longitudes in the range -180 to 180. The
switch can be used to disable the default wrapping which is done at a low level
pj_inv(). This is particularly useful with projections like the
where it would be desirable for X values past -20000000 (roughly) to continue
past -180 instead of wrapping to +180.
+lon_wrap option can be used to provide an alternative means of doing
longitude wrapping within
pj_transform(). The argument to this option is a
center longitude. So
+lon_wrap=180 means wrap longitudes in the range 0 to
360. Note that
+over does not disable
A prime meridian may be declared indicating the offset between the prime meridian of the declared coordinate system and that of greenwich. A prime meridian is declared using the “pm” parameter, and may be assigned a symbolic name, or the longitude of the alternative prime meridian relative to greenwich.
Currently prime meridian declarations are only utilized by the
pj_transform() API call, not the
Consequently the user utility
cs2cs does honour prime meridians but the
proj user utility ignores them.
The following predeclared prime meridian names are supported. These can be
listed using with
Meridian Longitude greenwich 0dE lisbon 9d07‘54.862”W paris 2d20‘14.025”E bogota 74d04‘51.3”E madrid 3d41‘16.48”W rome 12d27‘8.4”E bern 7d26‘22.5”E jakarta 106d48‘27.79”E ferro 17d40’W brussels 4d22‘4.71”E stockholm 18d3‘29.8”E athens 23d42‘58.815”E oslo 10d43‘22.5”E
Example of use. The location
lat=0 in the greenwich based lat/long
coordinates is translated to lat/long coordinates with Madrid as the prime
cs2cs +proj=latlong +datum=WGS84 +to +proj=latlong +datum=WGS84 +pm=madrid 0 0 3d41'16.48"E 0dN 0.000
Starting in PROJ 4.8.0, the +axis argument can be used to control the axis orientation of the coordinate system. The default orientation is “easting, northing, up” but directions can be flipped, or axes flipped using combinations of the axes in the +axis switch. The values are:
- “e” - Easting
- “w” - Westing
- “n” - Northing
- “s” - Southing
- “u” - Up
- “d” - Down
They can be combined in +axis in forms like:
+axis=enu- the default easting, northing, elevation.
+axis=neu- northing, easting, up - useful for “lat/long” geographic coordinates, or south orientated transverse mercator.
+axis=wnu- westing, northing, up - some planetary coordinate systems have “west positive” coordinate systems
+axis argument does not work with the
proj command line